REPORTED SPEECH

Reported Speech

 Indirect Speech (also referred to as ‘reported speech’) refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. 

1. If the reporting verb (i.e. said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original..

      For example:

  • He said the test was difficult.
  • She said she watched TV every day.
  • Jack said he came to school every day. 

 2. If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (i.e. says) the tense is retained.

For example:

  • He says the test is difficult.
  • She has said that she watches TV every day.
  • Jack will say that he comes to school every day. 

3. If reporting a general truth the present tense will be retained.

       For example:The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important.

Changing Pronouns and Time Signifiers

When changing from direct speech to indirect speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

For example:

  • She said, “I want to bring my children.” BECOMES She said she wanted to bring her children.
  • Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show.” BECOMES Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show.

It is also important to change time words (signifiers) when referring to present, past or future time to match the moment of speaking.

      For example:

  • She said, “I want to bring my children tomorrow.” BECOMES She said she wanted to bring her children the next day.
  • Jack said, “My wife went with me to the show yesterday.” BECOMES Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show the day before. 

Indirect Questions

When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/ no questions connect the reported question using ‘if’. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question word.

        For example:

  • She asked, “Do you want to come with me?” BECOMES She asked me if I wanted to come with her.
  • Dave asked, “Where did you go last weekend?” BECOMES Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.
  • He asked, “Why are you studying English?” BECOMES She asked me why I was studying English.

1. Perubahan Stuktur kalimat

 

Jika kita lihat pada kalimat direct speech, terdapat ciri-ciri yang identik yaitu terdapat tanda petik (“). Tada petik tersebut merupakan cara yang sering digunakan untuk membedakan mana yang direct atau yang indirect.

 

Ketika klimat direct speech tersebut dirubah menjadi kalimat indirect speech, tanda petik tersebut pun dihilangkan atau digantikan dengan kata “that” atau “to” (untuk kalimat perintah). Misalnya:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said, I have a present for you in my bag.

He said that he had a present for me in his bag.

02

He asked me, why do you come late.

He asked me why I came late.

03

He orderd me, don’t bring a bag.

He ordered me to didn’t bring a bag.

 

Perubahan struktur kalimat juga terjadi jika pada direct speech menggunakan kalimat tanya, maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif (berita).

 

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan kalimat tanya “yes-no question” maka akan dirubah menjadi if/whether. Contohnya:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

They asked me, “Do you want to join us to play football?”

They asked me if/whether I want to join them to play football.

02

He asked me, “Does she want to mary me?”

He asked me if/whether she wants to mary her.

 

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan 5W1H question (Why, Who, What, When, WHere, How), maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif dengan cara sebagai berikut:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He asked me, “why do you come late?”

He asked me why you came late.

02

He asked me, “what does she eat?”

He asked me what she ate.

03

He asked me, “when did you come?”

He asked me when I came.

04

He asked me, “who are you?”

He asked me who I was.

05

He asked me, “who is she?”

He asked me who she was.

 

2. Perubahan Tensis (Tenses)

 

Seperti yang dijelaskan dimuka, perbuahan dari direct ke indirect juga mempengaruhi tensis yang digunakan. Kebanyakan siswa sulit memahami perubahan yang satu ini. Untuk itu, penulis sengaja membuatkan tabel perubahan tensis agar mudah dimengerti.

 

Di bawah ini adalah tabel Perubahan Tenses dari direct speech ke indirect speech.

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

Simple Present

Simple Past

02

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

03

Present Future

Past Future

04

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

05

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

06

Simple Past

Past Perfect

07

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

 

Atau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di bawah ini, yaitu:

 

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

V1 (eat)

V2 (ate)

02

V2 (ate)

Had + V3 (had eaten)

03

Am/is/are

Was/were

04

Do/does

Did

05

Do/does not

Did not

06

Did not

Had not + V3

07

Was/were

Had been

08

Am/is/are + V-ing

Was/were + V-ing

09

Was/were +V-ing

Had been + V-ing

10

Has/have + V3

Had + V3

11

Will/shall/can/may/must

Would/should/could/might/had to

12

Could/might/should/would + V1/be

Could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been

 

3. Perubahan Pronoun

 

Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di direct speech (kalimat langsung) yang tentunya mempengaruhi perubahan pronoun pada indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung).

 

  • Kata ganti orang pertama (I dan We) pada reporting speech (lihat penjelasan di awal) berubah sesuai subjek yang ada di reproted speech.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said, ‘I am busy.’

He said that he was busy.

02

She said, ‘I am unwell.’

She said that she was unwell.

03

I said, ‘I will be late.’

I said that I would be late.

04

They said, ‘We will not permit this.’

They said that they would not permit that.

05

We said, ‘We need to buy some clothes.’

We said that we needed to buy some clothes.

 

  • Kata ganti orang kedua (You) di reporting speech pada direct speech berubah sesuai objek pada reported speech.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said to me, ‘You have to come with me.’

He told me that I had to go with him.

02

She said to me, ‘You can go.’

She told me that I could go.

03

She said to him, ‘You can go.’

She told him that he could go.

  • Kata ganti orang ketiga (He, she, it dan they) pada direct speech tidak mengalami perubahan ketika dirubah ke indirect speech.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

He said, ‘She is a good girl.’

He said that she was a good girl.

02

She said, ‘They have invited us.’

She said that they had invited them.

03

They said, ‘He does not have the necessary qualifications.’

They said that he did not have the necessary qualifications.

4. Perubahan Keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place)


Tidak cuma itu, dalam perubahan dari direct speech ke indirect speech juga mempengaruhi adverbs khusunya adverb of time (keterangan waktu) dan adverb of place (keterangan tempat). Untuk itu anda wajib memahami tabel di bawah ini.

No

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

Now

Then

02

To day

That day

03

Tomorrow

The next day
The day after
The following day
A day later

04

Next …

The … after
The following …

05

Last …

The … before
The Previous …

06

… ago

… before
… earlier

07

Yesterday

The day before
The previous day
The preceeding day

08

The day before yesterday

Two day before

09

Here

There

10

This

That

11

These

Those

 


Di bawah ini adalah contoh-contoh direct dan indirect speech untuk menambah pemahaman mengenai penjelasan di atas.

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

(+)

He said, “I have a present for you in my bag. here

He said that he had a present for me in his bag there.

(-)

He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”

He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.

(?)

He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?”

He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.

(?)

He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?

 He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.

(!)


He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”


He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.

(!)

He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!”

He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

SOAL REPORTED SPEECH

 

1. The woman says to him: “you play the piano well.”
The girl says to him that ………….
A. you play the piano well.
B. he play the piano well
C. he plays the piano well
D. he played the piano well
E. you played the piano well

2. “Did he leave a message for me?”
“yes, he said………. tonight”.
A. he called you
B. he would call him
C. you called her
D. he would call you
E. I would call you

3. “You mustn’t forget what I told you.”
She told me ………..
A. that I hadn’t to forget what she had told me

B. that I didn’t have to forget what I had told her.
C. that I mustn’t have forgotten what I told you.
D. that I didn’t have to forget what she had told me
E. that I was not to forget what she had told me.sing so loudly

4. Tony said to me: “Why does she sing so loudly?”
A. Tony said to me why does she sing so loudly
B. Tony asked me why did she sing so loudly.
C. Tony asked why does she sing so loudly
D. Tony asked me why she sang so loudly
E. Tony asked me why she did sing so loudly

5. “How many pieces of bread can you eat?” She said
A. She said how many pieces of bread I can eat
B. She wanted to know how many pieces of bread you cculd eat
C. She asked how could I eat a lot of bread
D. She asked how many pieces of bread I could eat

E. She asked me how many pieces of bread I can eat

6. “Where did you go  four days ago?” John asked.
Tony asked …….
A. where did I go four days ago
B. where I did go four days ago
C. Where I had gone four days before
D. where I had gone four days ago.
E. where I went four days before

7. “Did you have an   assignment last month? Father asked me
Father asked me ……
A. did I have an assignment last month
B. I did have an assignment last month
C. if I had had an assignment the month before
D. if I did have an assignment the month before
E. if I had had an assignment the month before

8. “Were you at the party last night?” Tony said.
A. Tony said that I was at the party the night be tofore
B. Tony wanted to know if he was at the party the night before
C. Tony asked me if I was at the party
D. Tony wanted to know if I had been at the party the night before

E. Tony said to me that I had been  at the party the night before

9. Rudy said to me, “Can I help  you  find  a hotel?”
A. Rudy asked me if I could help her find a hotel
B. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel
C. Rudy said that I could help me find a hotel
D. Rudy asked me to find a hotel for him
E. Rudy asked me whether he could help me find a hotel

10.Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday?
Jenifer   : What did the teacher want to know, Ferdy?
Ferdy     : he wanted to know ____
A. if Mary was absent
B. why Mary was absent
C. why was Mary absent
D. that Mary had been absen

E. why Mary had been absent

 

http://akhidefaz.blogspot.com/2012/04/materi-tentang-reported-speech.html

http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us/2012/04/penjelasan-direct-dan-indirect-speech.html

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